The International Temperature Scale of 1990 The International Temperature Scale of 1990 was adopted by the International Committee of Weights and Measures at its meeting in 1989, in accordance with the request embodied in Resolution 7 of the 18th General Conference of Weights and Measures of 1987.
Water Hammer Water hammer effect is an impact load that is the most misunderstood force known to pressure transducers today. A water hammer is created by stopping and/or starting a liquid flow suddenly.
Conductivity and Resistivity Conductivity measures the ability of a solution to conduct an electric current between two electrodes. In solution, the current flows by ion transport.
How Does a Pressure Transducer Work? A pressure transducer is a device that measures the pressure of a fluid, indicating the force the fluid is exerting on surfaces in contact with it.
4-20mA Input It is extremely simple and inexpensive to measure 4-20ma signal with a device that will measure only Voltage inputs.
Digital Signal Transmission Industrial networks that transmit data using digital signals often are an integral part of a data acquisition or process control solution.
Digital Signal Transmission In contrast to analog transducers that sense continuous variables such as pressure and temperature, many transducers provide an output that is one of two states: high or low, open or closed.
Measurement of pressure Mechanical methods for pressure measurement have been known for centuries. U-tube manometers were among the first pressure indicators.
What is an Immersion Heater? An immersion heater is a device which is installed in a tank or container to heat a liquid. The installation can be over-the-side, flanged, or threaded.
What Is a Silicone Rubber Heater? Silicone rubber heaters are thin, durable, lightweight, and flexible. They can improve heat transfer and speed warm-ups where controlled heating is required in confined areas.
What is a Polyimide Heater? Polyimide heaters, also known as Kapton heaters, are made from Kapton, a polyimide film developed by DuPont.
What is a Cartridge Heater? A cartridge heater is a tube-shaped, industrial heating element that can be inserted into drilled holes. Cartridge heaters provide localized and precise heating and are commonly used in the heating process industry.
What are Rope and Tape Heaters? Rope and tape heaters are flexible heaters designed to wrap around pipes, beakers, and other round surfaces. Rope and tape heaters are very similar in that they have similar power densities and construction.
Threaded or Screw Plug Immersion Heaters Screw plug immersion heaters consist of hairpin bent tubular elements brazed or welded into a screw plug and provided with wiring boxes for electrical connections.
Temperature Sensors and Controllers for Cartridge Heaters The sensor for the control of part temperature is an important factor in application design. Sensors should be placed between the working surface of the part and the heaters.
Over-the-Side Immersion Heaters Over-the-side immersion heaters are designed for vessels where through the side immersion heaters cannot be conveniently installed.
What are the operating temperatures of a cartridge heater? Cartridge heaters can operate at low, medium, and high watt densities. They are designed to withstand a working temperature of up to 1400°F.
Flanged Immersion Heaters Flanged immersion heaters consist of hairpin bent tubular elements welded or brazed into a flange and provided with wiring boxes for electrical connections.
What are the applications of a silicone rubber heater? Silicone rubber heaters have a wide range of industrial, commercial, and military applications. These heaters are resistant to radiation, moisture, compression set, weathering, vacuum, fungus, oils, solvents, and chemical attack.
What are the applications of a cartridge heater? Cartridge heaters are most frequently used for heating dies, platens, molds, and other metal parts by insertion into drilled holes.
What are the Applications of an Immersion Heater? Each type of immersion heater is suited for different types of applications. Water, oils, solvent, plating baths, salts, and acids are some of the many liquids and viscous materials commonly heated with immersion heaters.
Wastewater Lift Station Surveillance and Management A wastewater lift station decided to renovate its lift station cabinets - getting a much simpler, more cost-efficient setup with remote access to transmitter data and programming.
Temperature Sensors go ‘Hand in Hand’ The value of a products’ ability to complete temperature measuring solutions with quality and reliability.
Temperature Sensors go ‘Hand in Hand’ with Temperature Transmitters A leading temperature sensor manufacturer develops, manufactures and sells thermocouples and Pt100 resistance thermometers (RTDs), cables and connectors, and so much more.
Stable and Accurate Temperature Signal Readings A number of applications require signal conditioning devices to operate in extremely harsh environments – natural gas compressors with heavy engine vibration is one example.
Ship Engine Room Technology Upgrade A globally operating shipping and logistics company recently decided to refurbish a number of ships with newer technology.
Sales Measures Water Levels Customer service that goes above and beyond in combination with excellent products at competitive prices.
Safe and Precise Temperature Transmission and Control Stable, safe, and high precision measurement of temperature signals in all stages of the manufacturing process is of the essence at a polysulfide plant.
Renovation of Digestion Tower at Wastewater Facility During the renovation of a wastewater facility it was determined that a flexible and durable transmitter was needed for the installation.
Quality, Support, and Flexibility When it was time to exchange an old panel that controlled a hydrogen compressor an automation technician decided to go with a backplane.
Problem Solver in the Field A project of operating a brand new waste-to-energy line gave an electrical engineer the chance to work with a field mounted HART temperature transmitter like TXUN-HT for the first time.
Re-Design of the Electrical Setup of a Mixing Station in an Ex Area Flexibility, safety, and ease-of-use were at the top of the list of requirements when a chemical manufacturer was looking for temperature converters for a mixing station re-design project.
With an Isolated Repeater/Splitter A provider of electrical solutions to a wide range of customers and other electrical contractors, from temperature and pressure measurements to providing small PLC solutions needed a solution when working with temperature and isolation.
Improved Diagnostic Information Resulted in Significant Cost Savings On a recent project the data used provided by DRST-CM to develop software modules in the DCS that provide full diagnostics, a client’s company has been able to use the data for preventive maintenance.
Electrical Noise Generation A US-based OEM manufacturer of CO2 technology systems, chose a temperature converter for many of its cleaning solutions – the main reasons: greater channel density, EMC performance and easy configuration.
Devices Use Advanced Technology Using a temperature/mA converter and a display programming front DRST-UN and DRSL-DISPLAY for a variety of applications throughout the plant has made signal monitoring more advanced – and less complicated.
Danish CHP Station The members of a maintenance team at a Danish power station were fed up getting error messages and false system alarms from one of the boiler’s temperature surveillance systems.
When Building a Compressed Air System Having just one easy to use device managing all safety related signals was a significant advantage in implementing and maintaining one manufacturer’s safe systems.
What is a Mass Flow Meter? A thermal mass flow meter measures the flow rate of gas mass based on the convective heat transfer of a heated surface to the flowing fluid.
What is a Coriolis Flow Meter? A Coriolis flow meter is a type of mass flow meter. It is designed differently and works differently than thermal or differential mass flow meters.
Load Cell Applications Gas Turbine Engine/Rocket: High accuracy measurements of the volumetric flow of gas through the pipeline. The turbine rotor turns the rotor blades by gas flow into the meter, measuring gas velocity.
NOISE Noise is unavoidable in PC based data acquisition systems. There is board induced noise which can be measured by shorting an analog input to ground and taking a series of readings and plotting them in a histogram.
RS-232 Wiring and Connector Diagrams RS-232 is widely used for connections between data acquisition devices and computer systems. RS-232 devices are defined as either DTE (usually a computer) or DCE (usually an interface device).
Principles of Infrared Thermocouples The IRt/c product line represents a dramatic breakthrough in temperature sensing technology. The IRt/c sensors are unpowered, low cost, and can measure surface temperatures of materials without touching.
Vortex Flow Meter A vortex flow meter is a flow measurement device best suited for flow measurements where the introduction of moving parts presents problems.
Cold junction compensation for thermocouples In this article different types of cold junction compensation are review. Discover common practices when accurate thermocouple measurements are required.
Thermocouple types Thermocouples are available in different combinations of metals or calibrations. The most common are the “Base Metal” thermocouples known as Types J, K, T, E and N.
Thermocouple Response Time Time constants calculated for air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure moving with velocity of 65 feet per second for thermocouples
Themocouples - Reference Guide OMEGACLAD® is a three-part system composed of compacted MgO insulation, thermocouple wire and metal sheath.
RS-232 , RS-422 , RS-485 Why use RS-232 vs RS-485 and what is the real difference between RS-422 and RS-485? First, lets define each one.
Liquid Flowmeters An overview of types and capabilities, plus guidelines on selection, installation, and maintenance.
How to Use Ferrite Cores with Instrumentation OMEGA’s thermocouple and RTD connectors with built-in nickel-zinc ferrite cores are used where it is desired to suppress electro-magnetic, interference commonly known as EMI.
Practical Guidelines for Temperature Measurement Temperature can be measured via a diverse array of sensors. All of them infer temperature by sensing some change in a physical characteristic.
Pt100 Probes Probes may be terminated in a connection head, quick disconnect, terminal block, or extension wire. OMEGA’s standard terminations are pictured on product pages.
Resistance Elements and RTD’s Resistance elements come in many types conforming to different standards, capable of different temperature ranges, with various sizes and accuracies available.
How to Install a Pressure Tranducer? OMEGA transducers have three main types of electrical outputs; millivolts (mV), volts (V), and current (mA). It is important for the user to know which output suits his application to ensure proper selection of a transducer.
Water and Wastewater Test Methods for Operators A variety of test procedures and methods are available for use by water and wastewater operators.
ph Control Systems for pH control are characterized by extreme rangeability and sensitivity, and are also subject to difficulties arising from contact between measuring electrodes and hostile fluids.
Voltage Dividers In order to measure a signal which varies over a range greater than the input range of an analog or digital input of a measuring device, a voltage divider can drop the voltage of the input signal to the level the analog or digital input can measure.
Technical Conductivity and Resistivity Conductivity measures the ability of a solution to conduct an electric current between two electrodes.
PFA Fluorocarbon Information PFA Fluorocarbon Information
Wiring a Bridge Type Sensor One of the most common applications is acquiring data from a load cell or a pressure transducer ( or any full-bridge type sensor such as a strain gage bridge) with an A/D board.
Flow Meter Tutorial So you want to measure flow? The answer would seem to be to purchase a flowmeter.
Troubleshooting Thermocouple Input Devices Testing a thermocouple input measuring device is as simple as connecting a short across the input terminals.
Common Problems with Data Acquisition Devices Traditional printer drivers are very benign; they are only active, and use the printer port when you tell an application to print.
Testing a PC's RS-232 Port There are many factors involved in communicating with an RS-232 device from a PC.
Electronic Halogen Leak Detector For many years the most effective, and only, method for finding gas leaks of any type was the use of a soap or "bubble" solution.
Electrode Basics pH electrode technology hasn't changed much in the past 50 to 60 years, yet pH electrode manufacturing remains an art.
Ion Selective Electrodes: Measurement Considerations This article is designed to apply, in general, to all specific ion electrodes.
Single-Ended vs Differential Inputs One of the most common questions asked is the difference between single-ended and differential inputs, and what applications they should be considered in.
Low Pass Filters - Reduce Electrical Noise on an Analog Input Signal. A low pass filter is placed on the signal wires between a signal and an A/D board
Infrared Quick Help When to Use Infrared Temperature Measurement
Technical Principles of Valves Solenoid valves are used wherever fluid flow has to be controlled automatically. They are being used to an increasing degree in the most varied types of plants and equipment.
Low Noise Thermocouple System A low noise thermocouple system consists of a probe, a connector and wire. Each component has distinct noise and they provide a way to reduce electrical noise
Fuzzy Logic On/off, PID, microprocessor based, Fuzzy Logic; the evolutionary changes of controls. This brief paper outlines some background of standard PID control and how the implementation of Fuzzy Logic can improve your single feedback control systems.
Technical Dissolved Oxygen - The Fundamentals Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the term commonly used in liquid analytical work for the measurement of the amount of oxygen dissolved in a unit volume of water.
Measuring a 4-20ma Input With a Voltage Input Device It is extremely simple and inexpensive to measure 4-20ma with a device that will measure only Voltage.
Top 6 Methods to Measure or Monitor Fluid Levels Measuring and monitoring fluid levels accurately and precisely requires choosing the correct methodology for the target medium and vessel.
Contact Closure Inputs Many times it is necessary to monitor a contact closure using a PC. Some applications include monitoring a relay closure on a machine to record on-off times, or simply as an alarm to notify someone of an open freezer door.
Scaling It is very often necessary to convert a voltage, millivot or current reading into a more useful value such as PSI, GPM, LBS, etc.
Sources of Noise Noise is unavoidable in PC based data acquisition systems. There is board induced noise which can be measured by shorting an analog input to ground and taking a series of readings and plotting them in a histogram.
Calibration of load cells in Weighing Applications Inspect the load cell cables, and coil and protect any excess. The load should be equally distributed among multiple load cells of multiple load cell installations.
Infrared pyrometers Pyrometer is derived from the Greek root pyro, meaning fire. The term pyrometer was originally used to denote a device capable of measuring temperatures of objects above incandescence, objects bright to the human eye.
Mechanical Flow meters Discussed in this chapter are various types of mechanical flow meters that measure flow using an arrangement of moving parts,
Differential Pressure Flow meters The calculation of fluid flow rate by reading the pressure loss across a pipe restriction is perhaps the most commonly used flow measurement technique in industrial applications
Overview of GPIB protocol IEEE-488 refers to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard number 488 and is commonly called GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus).
RF/Capacitance Level Instrumentation Capacitance level detectors are also referred to as radio frequency (RF) or admittance level sensors. They operate in the low MHz radio frequency range, measuring admittance of an alternating current (ac) circuit that varies with level.
Liquid Flowmeters Measuring the flow of liquids is a critical need in many industrial plants.
Variable Area Flow meters Variable area flow meters are simple and versatile devices that operate at a relatively constant pressure drop and measure the flow of liquids, gases, and steam.
Plug-in Cards Although the microprocessor and digital network technologies have fundamentally reinvented the ways in which today's data acquisition systems handle data
Differential Signal Vs Single-Ended Inputs One of the most common questions asked is the difference between single-ended and differential signals inputs, and what applications they should be considered in.
The Venturi Effect Venturi tubes are available in sizes up to 72", and can pass 25 to 50% more flow than an orifice with the same pressure drop
Pressure sensor Piezoelectric presssure sensors can further be classified according to whether the crystal's electrostatic charge, its resistivity, or its resonant frequency electrostatic charge is measured.
Strain Gauge When external forces are applied to a stationary object, stress and strain are the result.
The RS-232 protocol Information being transferred between data processing equipment and peripherals is in the form of digital data which is transmitted in either a serial or parallel mode.
Orifice plate flow meter The orifice plate flow meter is commonly used in clean liquid, gas, and steam services. It is available for all pipe sizes but it is very cost-effective for measuring flows in larger ones (over 6" diameter).
Wheatstone bridge for strain gauges In order to measure strain with a bonded resistance strain gauge, it must be connected to an electric circuit that is capable of measuring the minute changes in resistance corresponding to strain.
Pitot Tubes Although the pitot tube is one of the simplest flow sensors, it is used in a wide range of flow measurement applications such as air speed in racing cars and Air Force fighter jets
What is thermography and how thermography camera works? Thermography extends the concept of point radiation thermometry to one-dimensional profiles or two-dimensional pictures of non-contact temperature data.
Strain Gage Technical Data The most universal measuring device for the electrical measurement of mechanical quantities is the strain gage.
Non-contact thermometers Historically a radiation non-contact thermometer consisted of an optical system to collect the energy emitted by the target;
RS485, RS422 and RS232 Why use RS232 vs RS485 and what is the real difference between RS422 Vs RS485? First, lets define each one. Keep in mind that all three are considered SERIAL, as opposed to IEEE-488 which is PARALLEL.
pH Control Systems pH control systems are characterized by extreme rangeability and sensitivity, and are also subject to difficulties arising from contact between measuring electrodes and hostile fluids.
RF/Capacitance Level Instrumentation One of the primary principles underlying industrial level measurement is that different materials and different phases of the same material have different densities.
How to measure pressure with transducers? OMEGA transducers have three main types of electrical outputs; millivolts (mV), volts (V), and current (mA). It is important for the user to know which output suits his application to ensure proper selection of a transducer.
Specialty Level Switches Thermal, vibrating, and optical level switches are specialty devices developed to solve specific level detection problems.
Electronic Flow meters While the flow measurement technologies discussed in this chapter--magnetic, vortex, and ultrasonic--are neither exclusively nor exhaustively electronic in nature, they do represent a logical grouping of flow measurement technologies.
What is a Load Cell and How Does it Work? Before strain gage-based load cells became the method of choice for industrial weighing applications, mechanical lever scales were widely used.
Types of Load Cells Hydraulic load cells are force -balance devices, measuring weight as a change in pressure of the internal filling fluid.
Load Cell Installation Each load cell installation is unique; consult a structural engineer when in need of very high accuracy, long-term stability, custom applications and specifications, and when using varied R&D environments.
How to Wire a Load Cell? One of the most common applications is acquiring data from a load cell or any full-bridge type sensor such as a strain gauge bridge with an A/D board.
Monitoring Juice Level in a Vessel using Transmitters and Transducers The Role of Flow and Level Transmitters and Pressure Transducers in the Monitoring of Juice Level in a Vessel
PLATINUM™ Series PID Control Simulator In modern industrial systems, temperature is the most common physical measurement...
What is a Displacement Transducer? A Displacement Transducer is an electromechanical device used to convert mechanical motion or vibrations, specifically rectilinear motion, into a variable signal.
Wireless Signals & Faraday Cages in Temperature Measurement Whether you want roses in January or fresh salmon in August, a temperature-controlled supply chain...
Cellular Monitoring: Process Monitoring with Cellular Technology Cellular monitoring is ideal for applications and data logging where updated information is not required in real time.
Applying Ultrasonic Level Sensors in Ultrapure Water Tanks Ultrapure water is contained in a storage tank for use in high purity applications. Monitoring the liquid level of the tanks ensures water is purified to tight specifications.
New Data Logging, Charting and Alarm Notification System The dashboard connects data from your measurement equipments to a webserver for easy-to-use data storage and collection.
Reactive Maintenance vs. Proactive Maintenance: You’re Paying 2-5X More for Maintenance Proactive maintenance, reactive maintenance, and the many benefits of switching to proactive maintenance.
Preventive or predictive: what is the right type of maintenance for your process? Predictive maintenance differs from preventive as it allows you to repair or replace equipment before it runs-to-failure
Wireless Process Monitoring: Pros & Cons of Using Wireless Devices Wireless monitoring is a versatile and inexpensive solution for a variety of applications in locations with no interference.
Preventing Explosions with FM Approved "Intrinsically Safe" Instrumentation Industrial explosions have caused devastating loss of life on many occasions.
Optimizing Strain Gage Performance for Inhomogeneous Materials How to use strain gages and optimize their performance while working with inhomogeneous materials
Particle Pollution & Environmental Safety Indoor air quality is the responsibility of building owners, managers and employers.
Factory Air Quality: Five Substances and Conditions you Should be Monitoring Top 5 conditions and substances your Air Quality System should be monitoring
Industry 4.0 — The Next Industrial Revolution Imagine a manufacturing facility where everything goes as planned.
Get Started with Predictive Maintenance Examine how to maximize the ROI of your equipment, along with the other advantages of implementing a maintenance plan.
5 Reasons to Wirelessly Measure Relative Humidity Monitoring Relative Humidity in Lab can be challenging. Choose the most simple and powerful way by using wireless transmitters.
The Benefits of Implementing Predictive Maintenance Predictive maintenance can help you anticipate failure before it happens, saving money, time and making processes more efficient. Learn more about these and other advantages.
Applying Ultrasonic Level Sensors in Life Science Pre-Treatment Using Ultrasonic Level Sensors in Pre-treatment systems can ensure exhibit tanks maintain the required water quality and liquid levels to protect the aquatic species.
Applying Ultrasonic Level Sensors in Life Science Post-Treatment Post-treatment systems ensure exhibit tanks maintain the required water quality and liquid levels to protect the aquatic species.
Applying Ultrasonic Level Sensors in Cooling Tower Water Basins Cooling towers are heat exchange systems that require precision sensors to ensure water basin liquid levels are monitored.
Air Quality Monitoring | Things you should know about it Ambient air contains life supporting oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and chemicals that can harm you and your employees.
Ultrasonic Level Sensor applications in Plating Tanks or Baths How Ultrasonic Level Sensor applications improve the process of Plating. Improving the appearance, corrosion resistance, hardness and durability of parts.
3 Factors to Consider When Choosing a Custom or Off-the-Shelf Sensor Given the risk to human lives and the financial costs when things go wrong, aerospace engineering...
Ultrasonic Level Sensor Application in Above Ground Bulk Storage Tanks By installing level sensors, operators can be proactive and monitor liquid levels - ensuring environmental regulations associated with the design and operation are consistently met.
Applying Ultrasonic Level Sensors in Water Treatment Chemical Feed Tanks Chemical feed systems produce chemically treated water fit for specific purposes. Omega sensors can play an important role in chemical supply refill process.
Applying Ultrasonic Level Sensors in pH Neutralization Tanks Before wastewater can be reused or released to the municipal sewer or environment, it must be treated to acceptable standards.
Applying Ultrasonic Level Sensors in Boiler Chemical Feed Tanks Ultrasonic Level Sensors help boilers generate and maintain heated water or steam for use in facility processes, maintaining the integrity of the boiler.
5 Ways the Right Expertise Can Simplify the Customization Process Pressure transducers and load cells play a critical role in ensuring the safety, reliability, and accuracy of products and processes across a wide variety of industries—including aerospace, mining, manufacturing, technology, and more.
Hybrid Ultrasonic Flow Meter Application Helps Ensure Accurate Enzyme Injection Learn how flow meters helped an Oil company achieve accurate measurements of the water flow rate and total flow.
Improving Safety in Machine Control Systems with Limit Switches Imagine a product being moved on a conveyor belt that somehow gets out of place.
Logging Temperature and Pressure in the Canning Industry Topics include background to food canning, process verification, temperature distribution, and more.
10 Applications Where You Need a Digital Panel Meter Digital panel meters present numerical information that’s easy to read.
Infrared Temperature Measurement Theory and Application Infrared thermometers for non-contact temperature measurement are highly developed sensors which have wide-spread application in...
Measuring pH with a Wireless Device: 3 Must-Have Features Ready to measure pH with a Wireless Device? This is what you should be looking for in a portable data logger for pH measurement.
What are Nanosensors? How and Where are They Used? While few engineers need to work at the nano scale, temperature measurement with compact thermocouples is applicable across many fields.
Practical Considerations When Choosing a Pressure Transducer Understand the necessary criteria to select the right type of pressure transducer for your application
Flow Measurement in a Return Activated Sludge Line Keene Waste Water Treatment Plant uses a secondary treatment process called activated sludge, a process which converts non-settable substances into a biological floc
Differentiating State, Event and Pulse Data Loggers and Defining Applications Data loggers are instruments that monitor and record changes in conditions over time.
Wirelessly Monitoring Air Duct Temperature Measuring temperature inside an air duct is a common facilities maintenance task for energy conservation, particularly when office area temperatures are far from defined set-points.
Server Room Remote Environmental Monitoring Monitoring temperature and relative humidity conditions in a server room is essential to maintaining the operating efficiency of this critical infrastructure.
Sensor Theory of Operation Omega is a reliable source for pressure transducers and load cells that provide high quality data in a myriad of processes.
Machine Safety Checklist : Top Aspects to Consider Safety should always be the top priority in a facility with production machinery. Proper safety measures help to ensure that your workers are safer, and it’s simply a smart business practice.
5 Ways IIoT Sensors Can Add Value to Your Process Here's 5 Ways IIoT Sensors Can Add Value to Your Process
What is MI Cable? The basic construction provides high-temperature capability, exceptional electrical isolation, and physical protection for the conductors especially when subjected to harsh environments.
PID with Fuzzy Logic Adaptive Control—The Best of Both Worlds Proportional integral derivative (PID) control is a well established way of driving a system towards a target position or level.
The importance of wind tunnel testing in the lab Failure rates for many electronic components rise with temperature.
High Temperature Pressure Transducers vs. Cooling Elements Pressure measurement is often a challenging task due to the harsh environments frequently found in industrial manufacturing.
Coriolis Flow Meter Applications & Installation Coriolis mass flow meters can detect the flow of all liquids, including Newtonian and non-Newtonian, as well as that of moderately dense gases.
Temperature Transmitter Scaling Methodologies Temperature transmitters are used to send a signal from a temperature sensor, such as a thermocouple or RTD, to a measurement or control device.
How accurate can a Coriolis Flow Meter be? Mass flow measurement is the basis of most recipe formulations, material balance determinations, and billing and custody transfer operations throughout industries that need to measure flow.
Types of Relays: Mechanical, SSR, Internal or External Relays are the control switches that operate with low-powered electrical signals controlling most types of circuits.
Temperature Measurement in Electromagnetic Environments One of the easiest ways to measure and record temperature is with a thermocouple. Thermocouples perform reliably in most environments, tolerating temperature extremes, vibration and even ionizing radiation.
Strain Gage Application Requires Quality Control Surface Preparation and Application Steps OMEGA Engineering offers four types of strain gages: The Karma Grid or K-Series, Precision Strain Gages, Pre-Wired Gages, Transducer Quality.
Creating a Machine Guarding Policy A machine guarding policy is a critical part of the safety program at any firm where employees interact with machinery.
Differentiating Between Doppler & Transit Time Ultrasonic Flow Meters Ultrasonic flow meters are non-intrusive devices that use acoustic vibrations to measure the flow rate of liquid...
Introduction to Coriolis Flow Meters It was G.G. Coriolis, a French engineer, who first noted that all bodies moving on the surface of the Earth tend to drift sideways because of the eastward rotation of the planet.
Types of Load Cells Various load cell types are preferred, relative to the needs of the laboratory or operational environment.
A Brief History of the Temperature Sensor The sensations of hot and cold are fundamental to the human experience, yet finding ways to measure temperature has challenged many great minds.
Measurement of Current with a Voltage DAQ A data acquisition (DAQ) system that measures current typically does so directly. However, DAQ systems that measure voltage are often more readily available to the user.
Using Load Cells to Weigh Trucks, Trains, and Aircraft In the airline industry, weight is money. Every additional pound requires more fuel to lift, so making sure there’s enough gas in the tanks means knowing what the aircraft weighs.
Thermal mass flow sensors, theory of operation & design Thermal mass flow meters measure the mass flowrate of gases and liquids directly.
Preventing Vibration Damage to Thermocouples and RTD Sensors Challenges presented to temperature measurements in the presence of vibration
Measuring Temperatures in Furnaces with Oxidizing Atmospheres Measuring temperatures inside a furnace can present several challenges: high temperatures, temperature cycling, and hostile atmospheres exceeding the limits of many measurement devices while others have greatly reduced lifetimes and poor accuracy.
Applications and Benefits of Mineral Insulated Cables in Critical Processes MI cable is a specialized type of cable used in high temperatures or harsh environmental conditions because it has low flammability, even when operating at high temperatures. It resists oxidation and enables precise measurement.
Temperature Monitoring During Transportation, Storage and Processing of Perishable Products This White Paper provides some background to temperature and humidity logging in logistics and discusses equipment options.
Installing a Load Cell: Best Practices Each load cell installation is unique. Consult a structural engineer when your application requires very high accuracy, long-term stability, custom specifications, or when using in a varied R&D environment.
Signal Conditioning and Transmission in Temperature Measurement Output signals produced by temperature measurement sensors require conditioning to convert them to a form that can be used for further processing.
Thermowell Characteristics and Selection Criteria Thermowells are used to guard temperature sensors such as thermocouples, thermistors and bimetal thermometers against damage from excessive pressure, material velocity and corrosion
What is a Mass Flow Meter? Industrial and chemical processes ranging from polymerization to brewing depend on delivery of precise quantities of liquids or gases.
Flow & Level Measurement Mass flow measurement is the basis of most recipe formulations, material balance determinations, and billing and custody transfer operations throughout industries that need to measure flow.
Calibrating Temperature Measurement Devices Used in Manufacturing Calibration equipment options and reasons for and against using an AS17025 calibration laboratory.
Understanding Deadband for Pressure Switches A pressure switch consists of a sensing component and an electrical switch.
Lessons about Positive Displacement Flow Meters Positive Displacement flow meters are the only flow measuring technology to directly measure the volume of fluid that passes though the flow meter.
How Bright is it? Shining a light on intensity measurement Human vision depends on light. Light reflects off surfaces into the eyes, passing through the cornea and pupil to form an image on the retina.
Tuning a PID Controller Heat treatment processes exemplify the need for PID control. To ensure consistent product quality the temperature inside an oven or furnace must be kept within narrow limits
What is a LVDT (Linear Variable Displacement Transducer)? An LVDT is an electromechanical device used to convert mechanical motion or vibrations, specifically rectilinear motion, into a variable electrical current, voltage or electric signals, and the reverse.
Air Flow Measurement Instruments: How Precise and Accurate? Calculating flow rates through ducts, pipes, hoods and stacks (collectively called ducts for our purposes), has never been difficult.
Understanding What’s Meant by “Intrinsically Safe” Fire is a hazard in many industries. Sometimes the risk is quite evident, as when flammable gasses...